The U.S. military in World War II kept women out of many of the front line areas of World War II, limiting much of their contributions to ferrying planes or sorting the mail. But women rose to the occasion when they were called—or allowed—to serve within range of the enemy guns, possibly none more so than the four women recognized for valor at the Anzio beachhead.
The American advance in Italy stalled out in late 1943, and U.S. planners needed a way to draw off German forces from the Gustav Line or lance their way into Rome directly. The proposed solution: land troops at Anzio and Nettuno, just 35 miles from Rome. The bold amphibious assault didn't initially go well.
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The Army quickly took a beachhead, and the corps commander wanted to take a hill that would allow the soldiers to sever German supply lines. He didn't have the troops to protect his own logistics lines if he took the hills, though, so he just held the area around his beachheads.
This did threaten German lines and drew off their forces, but not enough to allow the other Allied forces to break through the Gustav Line. Instead, the troops at Anzio were confined to a small area and subject to constant artillery and air bombardment. Their field hospital included plenty of female nurses and, obviously, the German fire didn't pay much attention to the nurses' noncombatant status.
Enter First Lt. Mary Roberts and Second Lts. Elaine Roe, Virginia Rourke, and Ellen Ainsworth. In February 1944, as the Germans built up their forces to contain and then pierce the American bubble, these women rendered aid to wounded soldiers even as shells rained upon them.
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There were rumors that the Germans were using the Red Cross on the hospital as an aiming marker, even though it should've marked it as a non-target. There were rumors that the counter assault was coming any day; that the hospital was going to be evacuated; that the hospital would never be evacuated because the damage to morale would be too great.
Throughout the shelling, the Allies suffered 19,000 casualties. Regardless, the women continued their duties.
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Ainsworth received her medal posthumously, and the other three got their medals in a combined ceremony only 12 days after the battle. After WWII, Roberts continued to work as a nurse in a VA hospital. Rourke served in the Army Nurse Corps for 23 years.
And if you're curious what happened next for the larger Anzio battle, Hitler got impatient. He ordered his generals to get rid of the American presence at Anzio. But, while the Americans didn't have the forces to threaten and hold the German lines, they had been building up their defenses.
The defenses were so well built that, when the German assault began in the middle of February, it was a slaughter. German assaults broke, one after another, against the British and American defenses. Allied losses were high, 7,000 were killed and another 36,000 wounded or missing. But as the German losses mounted, it eventually made it possible for the Allies to break out.
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On May 23, 1944, American forces were back on the march, and Italy would soon be knocked out of the war.
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Featured photo of the Battle of Anzio: Wikimedia Commons